Lung cancer classification and symptoms

The clinical manifestations of a neoplasm depend on its location, as well as the form of growth (inside the bronchus or into the thickness of its wall). The nature of metastatic spread and the presence of complications also play an important role.

Central cancer

The severity of the symptoms of the central form of lung cancer depends on what caliber the bronchus is affected, as well as on the rate and nature of the growth of the neoplasm. A typical sign of the disease is impaired bronchial patency. There are 3 degrees of this condition:

Lung cancer classification and symptoms

The first degree is partial blockage.
The second degree is manifested by valvular bronchoconstriction, in which patency is observed only in the inspiratory phase.
In the third degree, there is a complete blockage of the affected bronchus.
The most pronounced symptomatology is central lung cancer, which grows into the lumen of the organ (endobronchial). In the early stages of the disease, there is a dry cough, the intensification of which is observed at night. Quite often, the course of such a tumor is complicated by an inflammatory process in the lungs, which is accompanied by the release of mucous sputum. With the development of bleeding, blood streaks are determined in the sputum, or hemoptysis develops.

With further growth of education, occlusion of the bronchus develops, which is manifested by symptoms of atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis. An erased clinical picture is characteristic of uncomplicated atelectasis. Obstructive pneumonitis, on the other hand, is distinguished by the severity of manifestations: severe cough, hyperthermia, chest pain.

For early diagnosis of lung cancer, physical examination and X-ray examination are ineffective. It is possible to detect a tumor only with the help of more informative diagnostic methods – CT, MRI, bronchoscopy with biopsy.

Peripheral cancer

Peripheral lung cancer is characterized by a long latent course. Its identification is facilitated by preventive fluorography. This study allows diagnosing lesions larger than 1 cm.

The very first manifestations of a peripheral tumor are observed when it grows and grows into the bronchus, chest, pleura. Symptoms of lung cancer such as coughing, hemoptysis, and an increase in body temperature are observed when the neoplasm decays. In some cases, this process does not manifest itself clinically. Distant metastases cause extrapulmonary symptoms.

Apex lung cancer

Lung cancer classification and symptoms

A neoplasm of such localization is manifested by pain in the shoulder, which is characterized by irradiation to the elbow. Further, the symptomatology is due to which anatomical structures are affected during the growth of the primary focus. If lung cancer has grown into the ribs and intercostal nerves, then the patient notes the appearance of pain between the shoulder blades and on the front surface of the chest. The defeat of the spinal nerves leads to symptoms such as impaired sensitivity of the skin of the forearm and hand, paresthesia and muscle weakness in this area. Hoarseness of the voice is observed with the involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Pneumonia-like form

This rather rare type of peripheral lung cancer is characterized by infiltrating growth, as a result of which atypical cells fill the alveoli located near the focus. As the tumor grows, necrosis with decay may develop in it. The manifestations of this process are similar to the clinical picture of sluggish pneumonia, which does not respond well to therapy.

Atypical forms

This group includes tumors in which the symptoms of lung damage are completely absent. The clinical picture depends on the lesion of a particular organ. Most often, there are atypical forms, in which the symptoms of tumor lesions of the mediastinum, brain, bone tissue, liver come to the fore. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the results of histological analysis.